How We Make Up Our Minds – New York Times

THE SECRET LIFE OF THE MIND
How Your Brain Thinks, Feels, and Decides
By Mariano Sigman
277 pp. Little, Brown. $27.

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Sigman’s book is as much about the workings of the brain as it is about the mind. His idiosyncratic tour — “a summary of neuroscience from the perspective of my own experience” — starts with the mind of the child, then moves to the brain circuits involved in decision making and alights on consciousness, before ending with learning and formal education. One interesting section describes what researchers can now do with brain imaging technology to make better guesses about what pictures people are watching, memories they are recalling, or even what dreams they are having. This is not just a neuroscientist’s parlor trick: It’s an essential way of figuring out the codes the brain uses to represent information and knowledge.

Sigman is one of many professors to become popularizers of their own fields, rather than leave the explanation and interpretation to science writers. His book is peppered with brief stories and artistic allusions, and it moves quickly from idea to idea, study to study. But I found myself wishing he more deeply described the experiments he mentions and some of the nuances about their proper interpretation. Readers of science books are interested in the concrete details of how it all gets done as well as what it really means.

STRANGE CONTAGION
Inside the Surprising Science of Infectious Behaviors and Viral Emotions and What They Tell Us About Ourselves
By Lee Daniel Kravetz
267 pp. Harper Wave. $26.99.

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In 2009, five students at the same high school in Palo Alto, Calif., killed themselves within a six-month period, all by walking in front of commuter trains. In 2014, three more students killed themselves in a similar way. Suicide is a puzzle for our intuitive theories of human psychology: Why would we be designed, by natural selection or any other force, to be capable of deliberately ending our own existence? Kravetz argues that “social contagion” is the explanation for this series of disturbing events.

Research by sociologists, economists and psychologists has established that imitation and other mechanisms of social transmission cause norms, behaviors and moods to spread from person to person, without those people necessarily being aware of how they had been influenced or by whom. We are so susceptible to contagion that it must serve some positive purpose, but in our world many negative behaviors can also spread, such as eating disorders and cigarette smoking.

This is a fast-moving field full of interesting questions. Unfortunately, Kravetz attempts to weave the science into a poorly written narrative of his own reaction to the suicides, leaving the ideas and studies too vaguely rendered for readers to appreciate them.

THE INFLUENTIAL MIND
What the Brain Reveals About Our Power to Change Others
By Tali Sharot
242 pp. Henry Holt. $28.

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Social contagion fascinates us because its power seems out of proportion to its subtlety: We are so often unaware when it is happening to us. But it is just one of the ways people influence the behavior of others. Sharot, a London neuroscientist, covers the topic more fully and more authoritatively in a book whose title gives appropriately equal billing to thought, behavior and neurons.

Sharot writes, for example, about the remarkable fact that only 39 percent of hospital workers wash their hands properly. A study found that putting them under webcam surveillance didn’t improve things, but adding a continuous digital display of the number of people following the rules brought compliance up to 90 percent. This dramatic improvement combines new technology with old psychology: Positive reinforcement (the reward of being told you are doing your job well) can often change behavior more than punishment. Sharot suggests that it also gives people a greater sense of control, which is more motivating than a sense of restriction.

Her book is a witty survey of techniques to influence and guide human behavior. But there is still a lot more to be learned about how to best apply cognitive science to our everyday problems. We can’t all be monitored by webcam-compliance-centers and be motivated only by digital leaderboards.


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